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每天一课英语口语365 Unit 221-234

[00:00.00]221 The Use of Dictionaries
[00:05.09]Today I\'d like to talk to you about dictionaries because most of you have them, but don\'t use them very often.
[00:13.40]When-ever I ask people what a dictionary is for, they almost always say that it\'s to find the meaning of a word.
[00:21.37]That\'s only a small part of the answer.
[00:24.61]Sure a dictionary will tell you the meaning of a word,
[00:28.81]but it will also give you an example to show you how the word is used in a sentence,
[00:34.14]it also tells you how to pronounce the word if you already know the meaning of the word.
[00:40.05]And this is very important because if you can\'t say a word correctly no
one will understand you.
[00:47.26]Now think about when you are writing about something.
[00:51.10]Are you always sure about the spelling of every word?
[00:54.70]If not, what do you do?
[00:57.05]Do you write it the way you think it is spelt and hope it is correct?
[01:02.12]Or do you wait for some-one to tell you the spelling or do you look for another word to use instead?
[01:09.25]What you should do is to open your dictionary, and check to see your spelling is correct.
[01:15.99]If it isn\'t correct, think of another way. A word might be spelt, and check it out.
[01:22.21]Through guessing and checking you will find the right spelling.
[01:28.69]222 We Need to Broaden Our knowledge
[01:34.51]Our civilization is mainly attributed to the progress of sci- ence and technology.
[01:41.04]It is generally accepted that science and technology are the primary productive force.
[01:47.94]The development of our society is much more dependent on new science and tech- nology than ever before,
[01:55.59]and it is hard to imagine what our life would be like without them.
[02:00.89]On the other hand, social sciences construct our spiritual buildings and make our life more diverse and meaningful.
[02:10.32]Natu-ral sciences, no matter how advanced, cannot develop further without direction of philosophy and ethics,
[02:19.49]two chief branches of social sciences.
[02:22.68]In modern society, the relationship between so-cial sciences and natural sciences has become more and more close,
[02:32.32]which leads to the emergence of many subjects.
[02:35.48]Therefore, as college students, we should learn any kind of knowledge as much as we can,
[02:42.69]not only to widen our horizon but also to meet the requirements of modem society.
[02:49.56]With exten-sive knowledge,
[02:51.70]we can achieve our goals fully and make contri-butions to our country
[02:57.16]and the progress of the civilization of hu-man beings.
[03:01.21]223 Observe and Learn
[03:07.59]When young people get their real jobs, they may face a lot of new, confusing situations.
[03:15.16]They may find that everything is different from the way things were at school.
[03:20.41]It is also possible that they will feel uncomfortable in both professional and social situations.
[03:28.30]Eventually they realize that university classes can\'t be the only preparation
[03:34.99]for all of the different situations that appear in the working world.
[03:39.25]Perhaps the best way to learn how to behave in working world is to identify a worker you admire
[03:47.29]and observe his behav-ior.
[03:49.25]In doing so, you\'ll be able to see what it is that you admire in this person.
[03:54.95]For example you will observe how he acts in a trouble.
[03:59.57]Perhaps even more important, you will be able to see what is his approach to everyday situations.
[04:07.12]While you are observing your colleague,
[04:10.64]you should be asking yourself whether his behavior is like yours
[04:14.75]and how you can learn from his response to a different situation.
[04:19.03]By watching and learning from a model, you will probably begin to identify and get good working habits.
[04:28.51]224 Introduction of the Workbook
[04:34.52]Hello! I\'m Judly Henderson.
[04:38.41]Before we start our first lab, I\'d like to tell you a little bit about the workbook we will be us-ing.
[04:45.52]The first thing I\'d like to point out is that the workbook con-tains a very large amount of material,
[04:52.91]far more than you could ever handle in a single semester.
[04:57.09]What you\'re supposed to do is to choose the experiment and activities that you want to do,
[05:03.70]within a certain framework, of course part of my job is to help you make your choices.
[05:10.28]Next, I\'d like to mention that in each workshop chapter there are usually two subsections.
[05:17.62]The first is called experiments and the second is called activities.
[05:23.40]In the ex-periment section the workbook gives full instructions
[05:28.12]for all the experiments including alternative procedures.
[05:32.77]You may use the procedures as you will on the basis of available equipment or personal preference.
[05:40.56]In the activities section you will find sugges-tions for many experiments,
[05:46.07]exercises and projects that you can do on your own time.
[05:50.67]You\'ll see that there are usually no de-tailed instructions for the activities.
[05:56.49]You are supposed to do them your own way.
[05:59.39]OK, let\'s tum to.Chapter One now.
[06:03.86]225 How to Use the Library
[06:10.00]The library is an English language teaching and learning li-brary.
[06:15.80]Unfortunately our resources are limited and so not every body can join.
[06:21.99]Teachers of English, university students,
[06:25.99]and pro-fessionals who are in the medical, engineering, and management fields can all join the library.
[06:32.28]Those from other professions are welcome to apply, but your application wilt not necessarily be approved.
[06:40.22]You must fill in a library application form and put it in the box or the librarian\'s desk.
[06:47.59]Because of the high number of appli-actions we receive each week, you must wait for one week.
[06:54.28]Please bring your student or work card to pick up your library cards.
[06:58.82]Library application forms which are not picked up within one month will be discarded and you will have to reapply.
[07:07.34]You may borrow one video at a time.
[07:11.28]The video must be returned in one week.
[07:14.70]If you can not return it on time, please call; otherwise your video library card will be canceled.
[07:23.06]You may borrow 3 items at one time, i.e. 3 books or 3 cassettes.
[07:30.77]Items must be returned within one month.
[07:34.19]You can telephone the library to renew items for another month.
[07:39.86]226 Spelling or Content
[07:45.03]There is a popular belief among parents that schools are no longer interested in spelling.
[07:52.19]No school I have taught in has ever ignored spelling or considered it unimportant as a basic skill.
[08:00.05]There are, however, vastly different ideas about how to teach it,
[08:04.96]or how much priority it must be given over general language de-velopment and writing ability.
[08:12.33]The problem is, how to encour-age a child to express himself freely
[08:17.37]and confidently in writing without holding him back with the complexities of spelling?
[08:23.61]If spelling becomes the only focal point of his teacher\'s in-terest,
[08:29.31]clearly a bright child will be likely to \"play safe\".
[08:33.62]He will tend to write only words within his spelling range, choosing to
avoid adventurous language.
[08:41.09]That\'s why teachers often encour-age the early use of dictionaries
[08:46.29]and pay attention to content rather than technical ability.
[08:50.52]I was once shocked to read on the bottom of a sensitive piece of writing about a personal experience:
[08:58.28]\"This work is terri-ble! There are far too many spelling errors and your writing is il-legible.\"
[09:05.38]It may have been a sharp criticism of the pupil\'s tech-nical abilities in writing,
[09:11.86]but it was. also a sad reflection on the teacher who had omitted to read the essay,
[09:18.52]which contained some beautiful expressions of the child\' s deep feelings.
[09:23.38]The teacher was not wrong to draw attention to the errors,
[09:27.77]but if his priorities had centered on the child\'s ideas,
[09:32.29]an expression of his disappointment with the presentation
[09:36.05]would have given the pupil more motivation to seek improvement.
[09:41.49]227 Christmas--The Spring Festival of Westerners
[09:49.19]In England, Christmas is the most important of all the \"Bank Holidays\" in the year.
[09:55.54]Two important things, apart from its reli-gious significance, help to set this holiday apart from all others:
[10:03.64]the custom of giving gifts and the habit of spending it with the
[10:08.94]The custom of giving presents to one\'s family and friends is a very pleasant one
[10:15.13]so long as one remembers that it is the spirit behind the gift which matters most and not the gift itself.
[10:23.46]How good it is at Christmas to return to the family and meet parents,
[10:29.66]grandparents and as many aunts, uncles and cousins as can be accommodated.
[10:35.98]Without twentieth-century means of transport, many families would be denied the Christmas reunion.
[10:43.08]Christmas Day is spent quietly at home.
[10:46.95]The excitement of all the presents is hardly over before it is time for the traditional Christmas dinner:
[10:54.08]turkey, duck or chicken with rich fruity Christ-mas pudding afterwards.
[11:00.25]At tea-time, the crackers are pulled out.
[11:03.88]The evening is spent in games merriment and more eating and drinking.
[11:08.45]There is always Boxing Day, the Bank Holiday af-ter Christmas Day,
[11:13.41]on which to recover, if all the excitement and food have proved a little too much.
[11:20.15]228 Live Outside or Inside London
[11:26.00]Many people who work in London prefer to live outside it,
[11:31.20]and to go to their offices, factories or schools every day by train,
car or bus,
[11:38.88]even though this means they have to get up earlier in the morning and reach home later in the evening.
[11:45.41]One advantage of living outside London is that houses are cheaper.
[11:51.18]Even a small flat in London without a garden costs a lot of rent.
[11:57.27]With the same money one can get a little house in the country with a garden of one\'s own.
[12:03.62]Then, in the country one can rest from the noise and hurry of the town.
[12:10.04]Even though one has to get up earlier and spend more time in trains or buses,
[12:16.94]one can sleep better at night, and, during weekends and on summer evenings,
[12:23.24]one can enjoy the fresh clean air of the country.
[12:26.89]If one likes gardens, one can spend one\'s free time digging, planting,
[12:33.01]watering and doing a hundred and one other jobs which are ready in a garden.
[12:38.57]Then, when the flowers and vegetables come up one has the reward of one who has shared the secrets of Nature.
[12:47.77]Some people, however, take no interest in country things: for them, happiness lies in the town.
[12:55.68]Such people would feel that their life was not worth living if they had to live it outside London.
[13:02.76]An occasional walk in one of the parks is all the country they want:
[13:08.01]the rest they are prepared to. leave to those who are glad to get away from London every night.
[13:16.29]229 Washington Elm
[13:21.88]Attention please, ladies and gentlemen.
[13:26.11]Our bus is ap-proaching Cambridge Massachusetts, where we\'ll be stopping to eat.
[13:31.26]We\'ll have our lunch in the garden of a restaurant over-looking a small park that has a very interesting story.
[13:38.63]This park commemorates a tree, a very famous tree,
[13:43.90]because legend has it that General George Washington took command of the continen-tal army
[13:49.83]in 1775 under its very branches.
[13:54.43]It was almost 100 years later, in 1864,
[14:00.15]that the city of Cambridge placed a plaque on the tree to celebrate the event that made it famous
[14:07.10]and from that mo-ment the tree was called the Washington Elm.
[14:12.85]In due time the tree gradually succumbed to the attacks of insects and lost much of its beauty.
[14:20.16]It was finally destroyed in an storm at the end of the century.
[14:24.55]But that\'s not the end of the story.
[14:27.58]The remains of the tree were cut down and the concentric growth rings were counted to find out how old the tree was.
[14:35.81]Well, it seems that if Washington had accepted the command of his army beneath this tree
[14:42.52]he must have done so on his knees.
[14:45.08]This particular elm couldn\'t have been more than 3 or 4 years old in 1775.
[14:52.47]It is a well-known fact that Washington. took-command in the ceremony under an elm tree,
[14:59.03]but unfortunately it couldn\'t have been the famous Washington Elm.
[15:04.46]Well, enjoy your lunch, folks, watch your step as you leave the bus.
[15:11.23]230 Walt Disney World
[15:15.12]If you are looking for a great place to spend your vacation, consider Walt Disney World.
[15:21.97]WDW is the most fantastic vaca-tion destination in the world covering an expanse of over 47 square miles.
[15:32.26]It includes four major theme parks, three water parks,
[15:36.73]a sports complex, six golf courses, a shopping center, and a night time entertainment complex.
[15:45.08]Walt Disney World has something for everyone--the theme park enthusiast,
[15:50.91]the naturalist, the sports enthusiast, the roman-tic, and the gourmet.
[15:57.05]Walt Disney World has both high technology and low technology, fantasy and reality.
[16:04.91]The gardens of Walt Disney World are gorgeous.
[16:08.54]Its transportation system is ex-pensive and efficient.
[16:13.04]Disney\'s employees, known as cast mem-bers, are helpful and serve to make you--the guest--happy.
[16:21.68]Of course, the four major theme parks are the main attrac-tion at Walt Disney World.
[16:28.24]The magic kingdom is a wonderful collection of adventure, heritage, fantasy, and science fiction.
[16:36.31]Walt Disney\'s dream of an Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow showcases both technology
[16:44.64]and world culture in a u-nique mix of attractions and exhibits.
[16:50.23]At the Disney Studios you can see television and movie production
[16:55.82]and enjoy many of your favorite films and shows from the past, too.
[17:01.18]Animal kingdom, Disney\'s newest, rounds out the foursome splendidly!
[17:07.29]In addition to major parks, three water parks and a handful of other attraction are available to resort guests.
[17:16.93]Blizzard Beach was Florida\'s first ski resort until the snow from the freak winter storm melted.
[17:25.42]Other \"minor\" attraction include Pleasure Island, a shopping, dining, and nightclub complex.
[17:34.30]231 Eyesight Regained
[17:39.84]Robert Edwards was blinded in an automobile accident nine years ago.
[17:45.14]He was also partially deaf because of old age.
[17:49.09]Last week, he was strolling near his home when a thunderstorm ap-proached.
[17:54.86]He took refuge under a tree and was struck by light-ening.
[17:59.48]He was knocked to the ground and woke up some 20 minutes later, lying face down in water below a tree.
[18:07.30]He went into the house and lay down in bed.
[18:11.81]A short time later, he a-woke; his legs were numb and he was trembling.
[18:18.79]When he opened his eyes, he could see the clock across the room fading
in and out in front of him.
[18:25.87]When his wife entered, he saw her for the first time in nine years.
[18:31.48]Doctors confirm that he has re-gained his sight and hearing apparently from the splash of lighten-ing,
[18:39.11]but they are unable to explain the occurrence.
[18:43.24]The only possible explanation offered by one doctor was that,
[18:48.91]since Ed-wards lost his sight as a result of trauma in a terrible accident,
[18:53.92]perhaps the only way it could be restored was by another trau-ma.
[19:00.09]232 Kuwait
[19:05.03]Kuwait is a country which is quite small but which is very rich.
[19:10.33]It has a population of a little more than a million and it is situated at the mouth end of the Persian Gulf.
[19:18.27]This small desert country is one of the world\' s leading oil producers,
[19:23.83]and it has approximately 15 percent of the world\'s known petroleum re- serves
[19:29.42]since the discovery of oil in 1938.
[19:33.66]Kuwait\' s rulers have turned the country into a prosperous welfare state.
[19:39.09]It has free pri-mary and secondary education, free health care and social ser-vices;
[19:46.56]and the Kuwaitis do not have to pay any personal income tax for those services.
[19:52.93]The rate of literary is high and constantly growing.
[19:57.35]The University of Kuwait was opened in 1966,
[20:02.10]but many of the Kuwaiti students still study in colleges and universi-ties abroad, at state expense.
[20:10.52]Kuwait is needless to point out, an Arab country, and about 99 percent of the people who live there are Moslems.
[20:20.13]But fewer than half of these Moslems are actually citizens of Kuwait.
[20:26.01]This is because there are many Moslem im-migrants
[20:29.66]who have come from all over the Arab world from places like Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, from Oman,
[20:38.28]and from the Sudan.
[20:40.19]Indians, Pakistanis, and Iranians live and work in Kuwait, too.
[20:46.49]The other I percent of the population, in other words the non Moslems,
[20:52.26]are recent immigrants who were attract-ed by the opportunities to work for the oil companies.
[20:58.45]There are several thousand Europeans and Americans in Kuwait.
[21:03.60]Many of them are employed by the oil companies.
[21:08.14]233 The Mysterious Disappearance
[21:14.88]Some years ago an American policeman found a woman ly-ing near a lonely road.
[21:21.99]She did not appear to have had an acci-dent,
[21:25.51]but she was trembling and clearly in a state of shock, so he rushed her to the nearest hospital.
[21:32.77]She began to tell the doctor on duty a story which was astonishing in all respects.
[21:40.09]She had been driving along a country road when she was stopped by a flying saucer landing in front of her.
[21:47.72]She had been forced to leave the car and enter the flying saucer by some creatures.
[21:53.41]These creatures looked like human beings, and could easily make themselves understood although they could not speak.
[22:02.24]It was as though they would read her thoughts and she could read theirs.
[22:07.57]They treated her politely and allowed her to leave after carrying out a number of tests on her.
[22:14.49]As she otherwise seemed to be normal,
[22:17.57]the doctor decided that she was probably suffering from the side effects of some drug.
[22:22.77]The woman insisted on being allowed to go home,
[22:26.69]but when she gave her address it was in a town over a thousand miles from the hospital.
[22:33.09]The police then started to make inquiries.
[22:37.27]They soon discovered that there was already a search going on for the woman,
[22:42.00]whose husband had reported that she had disappeared.
[22:45.68]Her car had been found with the driver\'s door open and the engine running.
[22:51.74]In front of the car the surface of the road had been completely destroyed--
[22:56.99]not by an explosion or anything of that kind,
[23:00.68]but as though a large, circular, white-hot object had burnt through it.
[23:06.06]234 A Large City without Policemen
[23:13.48]It is hard to imagine a large city without policemen,
[23:18.23]but such was the situation in London in the early part of the 18th century.
[23:24.40]There was no organized police force.
[23:27.61]There were only public watchmen,
[23:30.09]but they were generally feeble and old men, unfit for more strenuous assignment than calling.
[23:37.56]\"Past 10 o\'clock and a cold frosty rooming.\"
[23:41.11]There were also constables appointed to keep the peace.
[23:45.71]From as far back as 1252, constables had been appointed for each parish in England and the position was an honor.
[23:55.59]The constable was unpaid, however,
[23:58.85]and not expected to do more than carry out the law
[24:02.74]in country towns and villages where the commonest crime was likely to be the theft of some-one\'s clothes.
[24:10.24]In London more serious crimes were committed; as the work of the constable became more dangerous,
[24:18.00]the men who should have done it paid others to do it for them.
[24:22.57]It was part of the constable\'s duty to raise the \"hue and cry\" after an escaping criminal.
[24:30.09]On hearing his cry, all passers-by were supposed to join the pursuit,
[24:36.08]but in practice, not many people could be persuaded to help.
[24:40.67]it was too dangerous a task and the constable was unarmed.

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