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每天一课英语口语365 Unit 235-249

[00:00.00]235 An Unfortunate Country
[00:04.18]Australia is a large continent--as large as the United States of America.
[00:10.14]It was not seen by European explorers until 1642, when a Dutchman,
[00:17.24]Tasman,sailed round it and took possession of it in the name of Holland.
[00:22.36]But nearly two hundred years went by before Australia began to develop into the modem nation we know today.
[00:29.57]The main reasons for this late development are these.
[00:33.88]First, Australia is situated in an unfortunate part of the world.
[00:39.50]Secondly most parts of it suffer from a bad climate.
[00:44.46]In the north it is uncomfortably wet and in the west it is uncomfortably dry.
[00:50.78]Thirdly, the interior of the country is a desert which is al-most impossible to irrigate.
[00:57.73]In the fourth place, the mountains run more or less along the outer edges of the continent,
[01:04.13]so that the interior appears to be a sort of hollow bowl, and since water does not flow uphill,
[01:11.81]there are no large rivers in Australia.
[01:14.63]In the fifth place, the original inhabitants were never exploited or influ-enced by settlers,
[01:21.92]with the result that a native population never developed till the end of the nineteenth century.
[01:27.95]Lastly, Australia\'s own plants and animals contributed little or nothing to its present day prosperity.
[01:36.89]236 Sharks Help
[01:43.00]Have you heard of sharks helping people in danger?
[01:46.61]A ship wreck survivor, Rosline Ben, a twenty-year-old divinity student who plans to become a minister,
[01:54.76]had such an exciting experi-ence after her ship was hit by a storm.
[02:00.08]\"I struggled into the lifeboat with other passengers and I was wearing a life jacket.
[02:06.85]We jumped into the sea when we saw the shore.
[02:10.22]But I was drifting far from the coast. It grew dark.
[02:15.08]I held a big and heavy log.
[02:17.82]Around midnight, I saw an eight-foot shark only a few yards away!
[02:23.73]I began screaming. No, now there were two of them.
[02:28.58]Instead of attacking me, they were circling me.
[02:32.45]One of them dived and came up.
[02:34.98]Suddenly I realized I was sit-ting on top of the shark as if on horse back, but still holding on to the log.
[02:43.50]Then they were both alongside me--pushing against me from each side.
[02:49.38]I could feel their bodies protecting me.
[02:52.93]They were still with me at day break.
[02:55.46]I learned why. There were four or five other sharks around me, but farther away than my two \"friends\".
[03:03.95]About noon, one of my sharks even \"caught\" a fish for me to eat.
[03:09.31]It was a miracle!
[03:11.50]The sharks were with me until late afternoon-when I heard the nosie of a search plane.
[03:18.16]I was saved! I turned to my friends, but they were gone!
[03:24.15]237 Toluker Prison
[03:29.27]In the high mountain country outside the city of Toluker, there stands a prison.
[03:36.27]This prison is quite different from other prisons in the world.
[03:40.08]The guards, except for two at the main-gate, are not armed.
[03:45.59]There are many remarkable things about Toluker prison.
[03:49.51]For example, of the 15,000 individuals who had been in prison at Toluker,
[03:56.07]less than two percent have got into trouble again with the law.
[04:00.51]Men in the open prison are free to find work on the outside but must go back to prison each night.
[04:08.42]On weekends they are allowed to go home.
[04:12.00]When most other prisons are still sending criminals back into society.
[04:17.93]Toluker is re-turning people who stand on their own feet and contribute to so-ciety.
[04:24.39]In 1974, a prisoner called Barb Crook moved to the open prison.
[04:30.73]A year later, he left the Toluker prison for the last time.
[04:35.67]He was then nearly forty-six and had been in prison for fourteen years.
[04:41.76]He got a job as a construction worker in the city, remar-ried and was regarded a useful person of his community.
[04:50.43]If you ask Barb why Toluker works, he would say, \"Because they be-lieve in me when I was at my worst.\"
[04:59.73]238 A Nation on Wheels
[05:05.71]Cars are important part of life in the United States.
[05:10.83]Without a car most people feel that they are poor.
[05:15.38]And even if a person is poor he doesn\'t feel really poor when he has a car.
[05:21.33]Henry Ford was the man who first started making cars in large numbers.
[05:27.18]He probably didn\'t know how much the car was going to affect American culture.
[05:32.96]The car made the United States a nation on wheels.
[05:37.14]And it helped make the United States what it is today.
[05:41.52]There are three main reasons why the car became so popu-lar in the United States.
[05:47.92]First of all, the country is a huge one and Americans like to move around in it.
[05:54.27]The car provides the most comfortable and cheapest form of transportation.
[05:59.76]With a car people can go to any place without spending a lot of money.
[06:05.48]The second reason cars are popular is the fact that the Unit-ed States never really developed
[06:13.45]an efficient and inexpensive form of public transportation.
[06:18.15]Long-distance trains have never been as common in the United States as they are in other parts of the world.
[06:26.46]Nowadays there is a good system of air-service pro-vided by planes.
[06:31.60]But it is too expensive to be used frequently.
[06:35.62]The third reason is the most important one, though.
[06:40.14]The American spirit of independence is what really made cars popu-lar.
[06:45.60]Americans don\'t like to wait for a bus, or a train or even a plane.
[06:51.51]They don\'t like to have to follow an exact scheldule.
[06:55.84]A car gives them the freedom to schedule their own time,
[06:59.89]and this is the freedom that Americans want most to have.
[07:04.52]The gas shortage has caused a big problem for Americans.
[07:10.11]But the answer will not be a bigger system of public transporta-tion.
[07:14.89]The real solution will have to he a new kind of car, one that does not use so much gas.
[07:24.58]239 The Silicon Valley
[07:29.18]If it were a nation, its economy would rank among the world\'s twelve largest.
[07:35.76]During the cold war it ranked near the top of the society\'s list of nuclear targets.
[07:42.08]Where is it?
[07:43.70]Silicon Valley, the area that stretches from San Jose, California, in the south, up to San Francisco in the north.
[07:52.40]And it\'s filled with technology geniuses and a ton of millionaires.
[07:57.73]But with all that wealth there also come some wear and tear.
[08:02.59]Signs of that wealth are everywhere in the valley.
[08:06.53]An estimated 250,000 millionaires call the valley home,
[08:11.42]and another 64 are created everyday, de-pending on how the stock market closes.
[08:18.29]But according to the re-cent study of the bay area economy,
[08:22.83]the explosion of wealth has brought with it some enormous costs.
[08:26.85]A key problem is that the bay area is creating jobs faster than they can build housing,
[08:33.46]cre-ating a shortage that\'s pushed the medium home price past$ 400,000, the highest level in the nation.
[08:42.27]As a result, working families are located in sprawling suburban developments,
[08:48.22]far from the job centers, causing the worst traffic jams in the coun-try.
[08:53.24]Many companies are finding it harder and harder to attract workers,
[08:58.20]despite the lure of high-tech and so a massive effort is now under way
[09:03.45]to reverse the region\'s rising cost of living and deteriorating quality of life.
[09:10.43]240 The Eskimos
[09:14.24]Maine is next to Canada.
[09:17.27]When Tony\'s grandfather was young, he worked in Canada every summer.
[09:22.78]Once he visited the north of Canada, near the North Pole.
[09:27.61]The Eskimos live there.
[09:29.76]This is what Tony\'s grandfather told him about the Eskimos:
[09:34.25]Near the North Pole there are two seasons: Winter and Sum-met.
[09:39.29]The winter night are long.
[09:41.56]For more than two months, you can\'t see the sun, even at noon.
[09:46.68]The Summer days are long.
[09:49.22]For more than two months, the sun never sets, and there is no night.
[09:54.65]The Eskimos have warm clothing.
[09:57.79]They make most of it themselves.
[10:00.14]They make it from the skins of animals.
[10:03.14]From skins, they make coats and hats and even boots.
[10:08.24]In this cold climate, trees can\'t grow.
[10:12.36]The Eskimos have to build their houses from skins, earth, stone or snow.
[10:18.55]When they go hunting, they live in tents of skin.
[10:22.29]When they move, they take their tents with them.
[10:25.66]When they are out in a storm and can\'t get back home, they build houses of snow.
[10:32.19]They leave those snow houses when the storm is over.
[10:37.02]241 Kenya
[10:41.18]Kenya was a beautiful country inhabited by different groups of people, some farmers,
[10:47.08]some herdsmen, a few hunters, when the English arrived.
[10:50.61]The primary motivations for colonizing Kenya were economic-to take away resources--
[10:56.80]and strategic-to take control before the Germans or some other European \"power\" did.
[11:02.13]However, although colonialism itself was selfish and ex-ploitive,
[11:06.88]the English were a mixed group of people like everyone else.
[11:10.43]Many English people were concerned about the welfare of Kenyans
[11:14.69]and worked hard to improve the Kenyans\' lives or at least to keep their lives from becoming worse under colonialism.
[11:22.11]These were civil servants, missionaries and some farmers,
[11:26.45]busi-ness and professional people who worked hard to develop Kenya both before and after independence.
[11:33.16]Because Kenya was such a pleasant, easy place to live,
[11:36.71]an-other group of people came to live in Kenya, known generally as the settlers.
[11:41.96]The first settlers tended to be the misfits from wealthy families in England,
[11:46.51]though later they were joined by a wider group of the English population.
[11:51.11]In particular, English soldiers who fought in the First World War were given farms in Kenya.
[11:57.51]This is an odd concept--to give away land which does not be-long to you in the first place.
[12:03.10]The people who actually owned the land ended either to be pushed off or to become servants
[12:08.56]and agricultural laborers for the people who arrived from England.
[12:13.62]242 Tattoo
[12:19.32]The custom of tattooing has a long history in Thailand, a southeast Asian country.
[12:25.22]In the northeast parts of the country, every boy should be tattooed when he is 17 or 18 years old.
[12:31.86]This is the indication of his coming into age.
[12:34.91]People believe that tattooing is a mysterious amulet which has some strange internal power.
[12:41.63]If a person is tat-tooed, he is free of any misfortune or disaster or unlucky acci-dent.
[12:48.29]On the other hand, he will obtain love, wealth and will be fortunate in the future.
[12:53.93]There is a uniquely traditional ceremony of one\'s tattooing.
[12:58.24]It is usually held in a temple because Buddhism is the national religion in Thailand.
[13:04.33]Before being tattooed, he can take some opium in order to lighten the pain.
[13:09.66]A monk will quickly prick a picture on the skin of the boy who is being tattooed.
[13:15.06]Soon after that, the monk will paint some colour on the picture to make it
[13:20.65]During the whole process, the boy must endure great pain, keeping quiet and still.
[13:26.66]It is also a test of one\'s courage and will power.
[13:30.27]Pictures of birds, fierce animals, flowers, and some strange signs are the favourite contents of the tattoo.
[13:38.05]They are generally the reflection of people\'s desire or dream.
[13:43.01]These pictures are usually on one\'s arms, thighs, shoulders, back and chest.
[13:49.57]The more skin the boy is tattooed, the braver and stronger he is con-
sidered to be.
[13:55.21]However, people are beginning to be aware that tattooing may lead to skin cancer.
[14:01.30]243 November Sees Fewest Births in Britain
[14:08.61]In modem Britain, fewer babies are born in November than in any other month of the year.
[14:14.13]The weather may be partly re-sponsible.
[14:16.87]As in New Zealand something similar happens, but with a difference of six months.
[14:22.04]Five hundred years ago things are quite different, the lowest number of births occurring in June,
[14:28.02]later shifting to August and in the end to the present November minimum.
[14:32.80]The reason for this may be found in the pattern of marriage,
[14:37.14]which in earlier times reached a peak in November with fewest marriage taking place in February and March.
[14:43.88]This pattern seems to have followed the calendar of medieval religious festivals,
[14:48.45]with most marriages taking place in the holidays before the Christmas period
[14:53.15]and fewest in the period of abstinence before Easter.
[14:56.68]The cycle seems to have changed gradually as the religious festivals of the medieval church lost
[15:02.06]their importance as punctua-tion point in the working year
[15:05.69]and thus ceased to determine the pattern of marriage and the related pattern of births.
[15:11.65]244 Telephones in Canada
[15:16.38]In Canada, almost all homes have telephone, as do offices, hotels, restaurants, places of business and leisure.
[15:26.72]You will probably have a telephone at your temporary home and at work.
[15:31.71]The telephone may be either a direct outside line or an extension through the main switchboard.
[15:37.93]Coin operated telephones are available for public use at any time.
[15:42.52]The charge is 2.5 cents for a local call, which is returned if the line is busy or there is no answer.
[15:49.63]There are telephone books which are updated annually.
[15:53.44]If you can\'t find a number, ask the operator for assistance by dial-ing 411...
[15:59.53]Long distance calls are easy to make, but they are expen-sive.
[16:03.87]It is possible to dial long distance calls from Canada to most cities in the North America and overseas.
[16:11.36]Instructions and infor-mation about the most favorite times
[16:14.97]and rates are usually listed in the front page of the telephone book or
you may contact the operator for help.
[16:23.98]245 Parties
[16:28.42]Mrs. phillips: How nice to see you, Mrs. Adams.
[16:31.06]Do come in. I\'ll take your coat. Henry... Henry... Mr. and Mrs.Adams are here
[16:38.01]Mrs. Adams: It\'s very kind of you to invite us. Is it a special oc-casion?
[16:42.79]Mr. phillips: Good evening, Mrs. Adams. Good evening, sir,what would you like to drink?
[16:47.88]Mr. Adams: My wife is driving tonight so I\'ll need something strong.
[16:52.11]Mr. Phillips: Follow me. Everyone\'s in the sitting room.
[16:55.41]Mr. Phillips: Ladies and gentlemen.
[16:58.57]I\'d like to tell you the rea-son for this party.
[17:00.84]Of course, we\'re always de-lighted to see all of you but... what I want to say is...
[17:06.46]Helen has just won a prize, she entered a competition and we\'re going to Bermuda on a free holiday.
[17:13.04]Now I\'d like to ask my wife to tell you about her success, Helen?
[17:18.00]Mrs. Phillips: Well, all I can say is: what a surprise!
[17:22.23]I had no idea I was going to win.
[17:24.85]I didn\'t even know I was going to enter the competition, Henry did all the work, didn\'t you, Henry?
[17:31.43]He told me how to fill in the form,
[17:34.07]how to answer the questions and how to write one sentence about Fluorex Toothpaste.
[17:39.92]The strange thing is... we\'ve never used it.
[17:43.47]246 Life on Farms
[17:48.46]All big cities are quite similar.
[17:51.93]Living in modem Asian city is not very different from living in an American city.
[17:56.79]The same can not be said about living on farms, however.
[18:00.14]In many parts of the world, farmers and their families live in villages or towns.
[18:05.41]In the United States, however, each farm family lives on its own field, often beyond the sight of any neighbours.
[18:13.30]Instead of travel-ling from a village to the fields every morning,
[18:17.01]American farmers stay on their land throughout the week.
[18:20.51]They travel to the nearest town on Saturdays for shopping or on Sundays for church.
[18:26.18]The children ride on buses to large schools which serve all of the farm families living in the area.
[18:33.39]In some areas, there are some small schools serving a few farm families, and the children walk to school.
[18:40.24]Of course life keeps changing for everyone, including farm-ers.
[18:45.07]Today there are cars, good roads, radios, and television sets.
[18:50.01]And of course there are modem machines for farming.
[18:53.30]All of these have changed farm life.
[18:56.01]For many years, however, farming in America was often a lonely way of living.
[19:00.87]Farmers had to deal with their own problems instead of getting help from others.
[19:05.76]They learned to try new methods, and to trust their own ideas instead of following old ways.
[19:11.66]247 Travelling System in America
[19:18.30]Although America is such a huge country, travelling is really very quick and easy.
[19:24.43]The visitor who wants to see as much of the country as possible should travel by bus that is,
[19:31.23]if he hasn\'t got a friend who owns a car.
[19:34.13]It\'s a fun. It provides a fast service be-tween cities.
[19:38.57]Some buses have an upper and a lower level.
[19:41.78]The roof is often made of glass,
[19:44.39]and in the summer the heat of the sun through the glass may make you feel too hot.
[19:49.64]Although the buses are cooled by air-conditioning,
[19:52.83]it does not always seem to work with such good effect on the top level.
[19:56.90]The seats are soft with a reading lamp over each one and they lean back for sleep-ing at night.
[20:03.12]On that long-distance buses there\'s a toilet and oth-er comforts on board.
[20:08.16]Stops are made for meals at roadside restaurants and there\'s time to stretch your legs.
[20:14.01]It takes about three and a half days to cross America by bus with short breaks for meals.
[20:20.52]Flying is as simple as going by bus.
[20:23.63]There are two kinds of service:
[20:25.77]a \"regular-service\" on which free meals are provided
[20:29.61]and a \"stop-over\" service where the plane \"stops over\" at vari-ous cities.
[20:34.49]Most cities have an aiport.
[20:36.92]You can often buy your ticket and arrange your airplane trip all Within about twenty min-utes.
[20:43.14]Businessmen who are in a hurry do all their traveling by plane.
[20:48.63]248 Ways of Consumption
[20:54.32]Americans spend a lot of money in their daily lives.
[20:58.58]Work-ing people spend money on transportation to and from work, on various expenses throughout the day.
[21:04.95]They spend a lot of money on entertainments.
[21:07.91]They buy sports equipments, go to sporting events and do many things that cost money.
[21:13.16]However, many Americans don\'t pay cash or write a check for these things,
[21:18.38]more and more they pay for things with credit cards.
[21:21.75]Credit cards are small rectangular plastic cards.
[21:25.88]Banks give these cards to their customers.
[21:28.65]When the customers buy something at the store, he shows his card at the store.
[21:33.82]This authorizes the store to charge the bank for the customer\'s purchase.
[21:38.18]The bank collects all charges for each customer.
[21:41.50]Then once a month the bank requires all the charges for that month.
[21:45.91]The bank does not force the cus-tomer to pay the full amount.
[21:49.62]It allows the customer to pay for the charges in several payments over a period of time.
[21:55.29]However the bank requires the customer to pay interest on the unpaid part
of the charges.
[22:01.74]In this way the bank allows customers to buy things they can not afford at one time.
[22:07.83]People can use the card to buy what they want and pay for-it over a period of time.
[22:13.47]They also do not need to carry a lot of money.
[22:17.10]249 The Development of American Cities
[22:24.76]American cities are similar to other cities around the world.
[22:29.36]In every country, cities reflect the values of the culture.
[22:33.40]Cities contain the very best aspects of a society: opportunities for edu-cation, employment,
[22:40.98]and entertainment. They also contain the very worst parts of a society: violent crime, racial conflict, and poverty.
[22:50.02]American cities are changing, just as American society is changing.
[22:55.43]After World War II, city residents became wealthier, more prosperous.
[23:00.91]They had more children.
[23:02.53]They needed more space.
[23:04.23]They moved out of their apartments in the city to buy their own homes.
[23:08.77]They bought houses in the suburbs, areas near city where people live.
[23:14.05]These are areas without many offices or fac-tories.
[23:18.20]During the 1950s the American \'dream\' was to have a house in the suburbs.
[23:24.16]Now things are changing.
[23:26.30]The children of the people who left the cities in 1950s are now adults.
[23:31.37]They, unlike their par-ents, want to live in the cities.
[23:35.37]Many young professionals, doc-tors, lawyers, and executives, are moving back into the city.
[23:42.39]Many are single; others are married, but often without children.
[23:47.04]They prefer the city to the suburbs because their jobs are there;
[23:50.99]they are afraid of the fuel shortage;
[23:54.15]or they just enjoy the excite-ment and opportunities which the city offers.
[23:58.67]A new class is moving into the city-a wealthier, more mobile class.
[24:04.10]Only a few years ago, people thought that the older Ameri-can cities were dying.
[24:09.56]Some city residents now see a bright, new future.
[24:13.48]Others see only problems and conflicts.
[24:16.20]One thing is sure: Many dying cities are alive again.

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