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每天一课英语口语365 Unit 166-179

[00:00.00]166 A New Discovery About Drink
[00:06.87]Researchers have discovered a link between drinking and thinking.
[00:12.56]A moderate amount of alcohol may help us keep our mental abilities as we age.
[00:18.73]Brain scans show alcohol abuse kill brain cells.
[00:23.48]But little is known about the effects of life-long drinking.
[00:28.03]So moderate drinkers may want to toast new findings from researchers at Duke, and Indiana University.
[00:35.94]Dr. Joe Christian of Indian a University says men who have one or two drinks each day
[00:44.23]retain slightly stronger comprehension skills than the non-drinker or the heavy drinker.
[00:51.25]The doctor and his colleagues gave mental test to nearly 4,000 male twins between the ages of 66 and 76.
[01:01.68]The moderate drinkers had slightly better reasoning ability than their brothers who drink more or less.
[01:10.03]Other studies have found that alcohol in moderation can help the heart.
[01:15.44]But alcohol abuse can cause bone loss and other health problems.
[01:21.24]This study was presented at an alcoholism meeting in San Antonio.
[01:27.25]167 Dealing with Stress
[01:32.55]The problems that come with high levels of stress can cause serious complications and illness,
[01:39.92]and therefore, it seems wise for people to know how to cope with the stress that modem society imposes.
[01:47.96]Of course, there are many reactions to stress.
[01:51.96]Some people eat or drink to excess, some spend hours on the phone,
[01:58.13]or E-mail all their friends to clear their minds and others adopt that age-old remedy for repressed feelings,
[02:06.56]to scream loudly.
[02:08.44]People\'s ways of dealing with stress range from distressing, self- destructive behaviors to the downright odd.
[02:17.09]I found that the most effective methods of stress relief are singing and dancing.
[02:23.65]I felt this strongly while watching disco-go-ers lost in the latest dance craze.
[02:30.20]People of different ages and oc-cupations gain pleasure together at the singing coffee shop.
[02:37.41]You can see it in the expressions on their faces when they are singing.
[02:42.43]The sources of stress and the reactions to it differ from per-son to person,
[02:48.46]and so inevitably there is a vast range of different solutions and coping strategies.
[02:55.83]But what is clearly important is that every one be able to recognize stress and cope with it effec-tively,
[03:03.46]before it develops into a major problem.
[03:07.43]168 Fearing Death
[03:14.22]Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death.
[03:18.87]In the young there is a justification for the feeling.
[03:23.23]Young men who have reason to fear that they will he killed in battle may justifi-ably feel bitter in the thought
[03:31.28]that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer.
[03:36.27]But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows,
[03:42.15]and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble.
[03:51.18]The best way to overcome it--it seems to me---is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal,
[03:59.70]until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes in-creasingly merged in the universal life.
[04:08.92]An individual man\'s exis-tence should he like a river--small at first, narrowly contained within its banks,
[04:18.53]and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls.
[04:23.44]Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly,
[04:30.99]and in the end, without any visible break,
[04:34.83]they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being.
[04:40.22]The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way,
[04:46.25]will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue.
[04:52.26]And if with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest Will not he unwelcome.
[05:00.93]I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do,
[05:09.29]and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.
[05:15.35]169 Health Is More Important than Wealth
[05:21.96]As the proverb says, \"No one knows the value of health until he loses it,\"
[05:28.52]in other words, nothing is more valuable than health.
[05:32.83]It is clear that health is the foundation of one\'s future success.
[05:38.63]If you become sick, it is nearly impossible to pursue your career effectively, much less make your dreams come true.
[05:48.11]On the other hand, if you are strong you can go all out to overcome the obstacles that lie ahead of you.
[05:56.68]Health is the resource of our energy.
[06:00.15]What should we do to maintain our health?
[06:03.23]First, we should exercise every day to strengthen our muscles.
[06:08.30]Second, we might as well keep good hours.
[06:12.40]If we get up early, we can breathe fresh air and see the sunrise.
[06:17.39]This habit can do wonders for our outlook on life.
[06:21.91]Third, there is a proverb that says, \"Prevention is better than cure.\"
[06:27.45]If you pay close attention to your health you can avoid getting sick,
[06:32.86]or at least cure yourself of a disease while it is still in its beginning stage.
[06:39.26]In conclusion, health is more important than wealth.
[06:43.88]Those who are rich but poor in health are no more fortunate than those who are poor, but healthy in body.
[06:52.00]If you want your wish to come true, health is the most important component of your suc-cess.
[06:59.50]170 The Killer--Smoking
[07:06.55]Two days later I was wheeled into the surgery.
[07:10.89]The tumor was inoperable, so they just sewed me up again.
[07:15.49]After a month or so I went for radiation treatment--five days a week for seven weeks.
[07:23.43]It made me unbelievably tired.
[07:26.62]On the way home Ber-nice would have to pull the car off the road so I could vomit.
[07:32.68]One of the first walks I took was out to the letterbox.
[07:37.77]It\'s less than a hundred metres away, but I had to sit down halfway there.
[07:44.01]The birds were singing and the smell of honeysuckle filled the air.
[07:48.95]I thought, the world is such a beautiful place; why did I have to ruin it for myself by smoking?
[07:57.31]I\'m angry with myself for smoking, but I\'m also angry with the tobacco companies.
[08:04.36]I saw a couple of cigarette executives on IV the other day,
[08:09.20]and they had the gall to say there\'s no proof that smoking is bad for you.
[08:14.68]I\'m proof.
[08:16.46]Today, when I look in the mirror I am shocked by what I see.
[08:22.23]A man with no teeth, a scar from his chest round to his back, struggling to walk, face distorted with pain.
[08:32.29]And then I realize what I want to do.
[08:35.71]I want to have my picture blown up and plastered all over the world on giant billboards.
[08:43.31]Because now, you see, I\'m the real Marlboro Man.
[08:48.01]171 Food and Health
[08:55.72]The food we eat seems to have profound effects on our health.
[09:00.84]Although science has made enormous steps in making food more fit to eat,
[09:06.56]it has, at the same time, made many foods unfit to eat.
[09:11.52]Some research has shown that perhaps eighty per-cent of all human illnesses are related to diet
[09:19.31]and forty percent of cancer is related to the diet as well, especially cancer of the colon.
[09:27.07]Some cultures are more prone to contract certain illnesses because of the food
[09:33.36]that is characteristic in these cultures.
[09:36.81]That food is related to illness is not a new discovery.
[09:41.49]In 1945, govern-ment researchers realized that nitrates, commonly used to pre-serve color in meats,
[09:50.39]and other food additives, caused cancer.
[09:53.97]Yet, these carcinogenic additives remain in our food,
[09:58.86]and it be-comes more difficult all the time to know what is contained in our food.
[10:05.34]Farmers often give penicillin to beef and poultry,
[10:09.75]and because of this, penicillin has been found in the milk of treated cows.
[10:15.39]Sometimes similar drugs are administered to animals not for medicinal purposes, but for financial reasons.
[10:23.83]The farmers are simply trying to fatten the animals in order to obtain a higher price on the market.
[10:31.85]Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has tried repeatedly to control these procedures,
[10:40.10]the practices continue.
[10:42.82]172 Vitamins
[10:49.04]As is known to all, vitamins are essential to our health.
[10:54.45]Listed in the table are three different kinds of vitamins.
[10:58.73]They are Vitamins A, B and C.
[11:03.17]Vitamin A comes mainly from milk, butter, cheese, fish and green vegetables.
[11:11.09]It is very important for healthy skin and teeth as well as for normal growth of the human body.
[11:18.71]Lack of it may cause skin troubles and bad eyesight.
[11:23.39]And our resistance to disease may be lowered accordingly.
[11:27.67]Vitamin B is chiefly contained in bread, meat, milk, liver and potatoes.
[11:35.88]It can play the role of a catalyst in digestion of food.
[11:40.29]If we are short of it, we will probably lose our appetite and our growth will be slowed.
[11:47.21]Vitamin C generally exists in fruit, potatoes and green veg-etables.
[11:54.42]It is necessary for the formation of teeth, bones and blood vessels.
[12:00.41]Without enough of it, our growth will also he slowed.
[12:04.77]The amount of different kinds of vitamins needed daily by humans varies considerably.
[12:11.95]We need about I my of Vitamin C and 20 mg of Vitamin B for the regular period of time,
[12:20.57]It is true that we do not need too much vitamins,
[12:25.56]but it is also true that we can not live healthily without them.
[12:31.60]173 On Drugs
[12:36.95]People\'s attitudes toward drugs vary from person to person.
[12:42.62]Some regard them as miracles; others think of them as danger-ous.
[12:48.24]Then what is the sensible attitude toward drugs?
[12:52.44]I think the first thing to think about is the difference between drugs and wonder drugs.
[12:58.68]The major diseases threatening Americans today are cancer, stroke, high blood pressure etc.
[13:07.25]Against them, the doctor\'s bag of tricks is limited. He has no wonder drugs.
[13:14.85]So the first important lesson is not to expect too much from drugs.
[13:20.39]If you can accept the fact that the war against many of our most devastating diseases is, at best,
[13:28.52]a holding operation rather than an inevitable triumph,
[13:33.24]it will do a great deal to ease your own life as well as that of your doctor.
[13:38.86]Too many patients exert great pressures on doctors to prescribe for every syndrome,
[13:46.33]even when such treatment is unwanted or dangerous.
[13:50.98]Unfortunately, the medical profession is guilty of taking part, to a certain degree, in the wrongful action.
[14:00.07]The patient who demands a shot of penicillin for every sniffle and sneeze
[14:06.08]may be given the injection by a reluctant physician because he is certain that if he does not,
[14:12.95]the patient will search until he finds a doctor who will.
[14:17.47]174 A Pain-Killing Wonder from China
[14:23.74]As world travel increases, nations learn from each other.
[14:29.33]In the United States today there are many evidences of this fact.
[14:34.68]One of the latest imports is acupuncture, the use of needles for treating diseases.
[14:42.00]Although acupuncture has been practiced in China for 2,000 years, its use in the westem world is still very new.
[14:51.14]Several hospitals in the United States are now experimenting with acupuncture as a way of treating pain.
[14:59.42]An American journalist who stood beside a patient during an operation in Shanghai recently
[15:07.18]described the process and its effects.
[15:10.63]To keep the patient from feeling pain during the operation,
[15:14.76]four needles were used, each about an inch and a half long.
[15:19.90]Two needles were inserted under the skin on each side of the patient\'s neck.
[15:26.17]The tops of the needles were attached to wires which led to a small electrical device.
[15:33.12]Throughout the operation the patient talked calmly to those standing around him,
[15:39.18]insisting that he felt perfectly normal.
[15:41.98]At one point he stretched out his hands
[15:46.03]and moved his bare toes to show that only his chest and neck were affected.
[15:51.64]How does acupuncture work?.
[15:54.80]How is it able to keep a patient from feeling pain?
[15:59.14]No very satisfactory answer has been given, but there are at least three theories.
[16:06.95]Some doctors believe that acupuncture somehow produces an effect upon the central nervous system.
[16:14.21]Others believe that acupuncture produces a chemical change in the body\'s fluids.
[16:20.40]Still another theory is that the needles make contact with an unknown system of energy in the body
[16:28.08]which travels along certain routes under the skin.
[16:31.74]The true explanation may be one of these or a combination of more than one.
[16:38.64]It may be something entirely different.
[16:42.92]175 Dream
[16:48.30]People dream four to six times a night.
[16:52.59]They dream while they are in the REM stage of sleep, which means rapid eye movement stage in one\'s sleep.
[17:00.47]Sleepers go into the REM stage about every 30 minutes.
[17:06.06]The first dream of the night may last about ten minutes.
[17:10.11]Each dream goes a little longer.
[17:13.22]The last dream of the night may be an hour long.
[17:17.27]People need their dreams.
[17:20.17]Younger children spend more time dreaming.
[17:23.54]Babies spend almost half of their sleep in the REM stage.
[17:28.63]One experiment showed that everyone needed to dream.
[17:32.92]Doctors gave some people sleeping pills.
[17:36.65]These sleeping pills didn\'t let them go to REM sleep.
[17:40.68]After a few nights without dreams, they began to feel bad.
[17:46.06]They became angry easily, they worried a lot, and they wanted to fight with every one.
[17:53.29]Then they stopped taking the sleeping pills.
[17:56.59]They all began to dream all night for a few nights to catch up.
[18:01.73]Why do people dream?
[18:05.26]Dreams give them time to find the answers to some of their problems.
[18:10.04]If they think they will have difficult problems the next day,
[18:14.32]they may spend more time on REM sleep the night before.
[18:18.55]In their dreams, they may find an answer to their problems.
[18:25.16]176 The Potential Threat of Human Health
[18:31.59]Where do pesticides put into the picture of environmental disease?
[18:37.44]We have seen that they now pollute soil, water, and pond,
[18:43.14]and that they have the power to make our streams no fish and our gardens and woodlands silent and no birds.
[18:51.44]Man, how-ever much he may like to pretend the contrary, is part of nature.
[18:58.16]Can he escape a pollution that is now so thoroughly distributed throughout our world?
[19:04.84]We know that even single exposures to these chemicals, if the amount is large enough,
[19:12.08]can cause extremely severe poisoning.
[19:15.42]But this is not the major problem. The sudden illness or death of farmers, farm workers,
[19:23.73]and others exposed to sufficient quantities of pesticides are very sad and should not occur.
[19:31.33]For the pollution as a whole,
[19:33.97]we must be more concerned with the delayed effects of absorbing small amounts of the pesticides
[19:40.11]that invisibly pollute our world.
[19:43.09]Responsible public health officials have pointed out that the biological effects of chemicals are cumulative
[19:51.63]over long periods of time,
[19:53.72]and that the danger to the individual may depend on the sum of the exposures received throughout his lifetime.
[20:02.16]For these very reasons the danger is easily ignored.
[20:07.85]It is human nature to shake off what may seem to us a threat of future disaster.
[20:13.68]\"Men are naturally most impressed by diseases which have obvious signs\", says a wise physician, Dr. Rene Dubos,
[20:23.68]\"Yet some of their worst enemies slowly approach them unnoticed.\"
[20:31.02]177 Healthy Eating
[20:36.40]In the western world, people used to be greatly dependent on \"convenience foods\":
[20:42.93]frozen peas, tinned meat and fish, ready-to-eat meals from the supermarket, anything which is quick to prepare,
[20:52.57]looks more or less appetizing and satisfies the immediate hunger.
[20:57.95]Increasingly, over the past decade, people have become aware of the need to change their eating habits,
[21:05.97]for much of the particularly processed food they eat, is not good for the health.
[21:12.22]As a result, natural foods--foods do not contain chemical addictives
[21:19.03]and have not been affected by chemical fertilizers are gaining a growing popularity among health-aware people.
[21:27.24]Natural foods, for example, are vegetables, fruits and grains having grown in soil that is rich in organic matter.
[21:36.93]This soil has been nourished by unused vegetable matter, which pro-vides it with essential vitamins and minerals.
[21:45.52]This in itself is a natural process compared with the use of chemicals and fertilizers,
[21:52.42]the main purpose of which is to increase the amount rather than the quality of foods grown in commercial farming areas.
[22:01.38]Natural foods also include animals which have keen fed and allowed to move freely in healthy-pastures.
[22:09.92]Compare this with what happens in the mass production of poultry:
[22:14.91]there are com-punter-monitoring farms where thousands of chickens live together
[22:20.63]and are fed on food which is little better than rubbish,
[22:24.86]chickens kept in this way are not only tasteless as food but also produce eggs lacking vitamins.
[22:33.77]178 Smoking
[22:39.65]Children as young as 11 are suffering lung damage from too much smoking.
[22:45.37]A survey of 10,500 London schoolchildren aged between 11 and 15 shows lung damage and illness from smoking.
[22:56.37]The research was carried out by a hospital team led by Pro-fessor Guz.
[23:03.00]The team was worried that most reports on the dangers of smoking have concentrated on adults.
[23:09.40]The scientists wanted to find out how children were affected
[23:14.00]and whether they understood smoking could make them seriously ill.
[23:18.23]The number of adults has gone down steadily, but the number of children
smoking remained constant.
[23:25.96]This is mainly because children find it hard to believe that health warnings apply to them.
[23:32.23]The research was carried out in 13 Hounslow secondary schools.
[23:38.37]Analysis showed 15 per cent of regular smokers coughed every day.
[23:44.61]Even a little exercise, brought on breathlessness among 40 per cent of regular smokers aged 11 to 13.
[23:54.31]A survey of school absence suggested the non-smokers had a better health than the smokers.
[24:01.80]About 53 percent of regular smokers admitted to bring up phlegm when they had a cold,
[24:09.40]compared to only 2 per cent of non-smokers.
[24:13.14]But Professor Guz\'s team was surprised at the children\'s ig-norance of the damage caused by smoking.
[24:21.50]Both non-smokers and smokers knew cigarettes could cause cancer, but few know of the other health risks.
[24:30.02]Professor Guz said: \"We believe that health education may be improved by making full use of knowledge
[24:38.06]concerning the breathing disorders in children who are regular smokers.
[24:42.50]This in-formation must be presented early, even at primary school.\"
[24:50.13]179 Asking For Enrollment
[24:56.92]--Come in. What can I do for you?
[25:01.08]-Professor Donald, are you giving your advanced geology course again next semester?
[25:07.37]--Yes, I\'m planning it.
[25:09.59]--I wonder if I could enroll in it. I know it\'s a graduate course and I am only a junior, but...
[25:17.92]--Aren\'t you a bit young? I\'ve allowed qualified senior to take the course,
[25:23.67]and they usually have a hard time keeping up.
[25:26.94]--I know, but the geology of the American west is my major in-terest and I\'ve done a lot of reading in the field.
[25:35.66]Last semester I took Professor Berman\'s course, and I didn\'t find it really challenging enough.
[25:43.32]--I see. You certainly aren\'t one of those students who are for easy grades.
[25:49.09]--I should say that. I really want to learn something.
[25:53.48]--Well, I\'ll speak to Professor Berman about it. If he thinks you are ready, I\'ll let you enroll.
[26:00.45]--Oh, thank you, Professor Donald. That is really very nice of you.

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